Condom use at last sex by teenagers in Ethiopia: the result of descriptive and injunctive norms

Condom use at last sex by teenagers in Ethiopia: the result of descriptive and injunctive norms


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Condoms include a significant protection process when you look at the sign of HIV and sexually transmitted bacterial infections also unintended maternity. Individual-level factors involving condom usage put parents help and connections, strong relationships with instructors alongside students, talks about sexuality with buddies and associates, larger recognized economic position, and higher quantities of degree. Tiny, however, is known regarding the effect of personal norms on condom usage among young men in Ethiopia. This research examines the end result of descriptive and injunctive norms on condoms use at last intercourse utilising the principle of normative personal conduct.


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A cross-sectional research is applied with 15-24 year-old male young people in five Ethiopian parts in 2016. The analytic test got limited to sexually productive solitary teenage boys (letter = 260). Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were executed. An interaction phase was actually part of the multivariate product to assess whether injunctive norms limited the relationship between descriptive norms and condom incorporate.


The descriptive standard of once you understand a buddy who’d ever made use of condoms significantly increased participants likelihood of making use of condoms eventually sex. The injunctive norm to be worried about what folks would think should they discovered that the respondent needed condoms substantially decreased her likelihood to utilize condoms. The injunctive norm failed to limited the connection between descriptive norms and condom need. Teenage boys exactly who existed closer to a youth friendly provider (YFS) site had been far more likely to have tried condoms finally sex compared to people who lived more from a YFS webpages.


Personal norms bring a crucial role in decision-making to utilize condoms among single young men in Ethiopia. The interplay between injunctive and detailed norms are considerably simple and probably differs by individual. Interventions need to concentrate on changing community-level norms to get additional accepting of sexually effective, unmarried young mens utilization of condoms and need is part of a more substantial work to hesitate sexual first, reduce intimate assault, and increase sex equity in relations.

Plain English overview

Condoms were a significant software to avoid the scatter of HIV, sexually transmitted problems, and unwanted pregnancies. Data carried out in Ethiopia and someplace else has shown numerous elements that impact youthful mens utilization of condoms. One essential but understudied element may be the effect of social norms on condom need. This study examined exactly how personal norms inspired whether men in Ethiopia made use of condoms the very last energy they had gender by making use of the theory of personal normative attitude. Effects showed that social norms would upset condom incorporate: teenagers which realized of buddies that has utilized condoms are prone to have tried condoms at last intercourse, and teenagers who have been perhaps not worried about what individuals would contemplate all of them if they learned they necessary condoms had been almost certainly going to have tried condoms and. Interventions should look to switch community norms by enhancing the acceptance of condom use among men who are intimately active and never married, this is a part of a bigger energy to hesitate age first gender, reduce intimate violence, and advertise fitness masculinities and sex equity.


Eastern and Southern Africa have the highest HIV incidence rate among young adults aged 1524 on the planet with 3.4per cent of ladies and 1.6percent of young men managing HIV in 2016 [1]. Though Ethiopia enjoys a comparatively reduced HIV incidence rate because of this area, at 0.4percent of ladies and 0.5% of teenagers (UNAIDS 2017) [1], it has got the second-highest population in Africa (after Nigeria) at 105 million folks in mid-2017 [2]. This huge population equals increased stress of individuals living with HIV across Ethiopia: in 2016, there had been 87,000 teenagers managing HIV and 8700 brand-new instances among young adults across the nation [1].

In 2015, the whole world Health business, UNAIDS, and UNFPA released the right position statement promoting the promotion of condoms to young adults, among different populations, as a crucial input for avoiding the scatter of HIV, sexually carried infection (STIs), and unintended pregnancies [3]. Condom utilize is also a significant indicator for assessing never-married kids mens usage of family planning plus reproductive health (FP/RH) services. Among Ethiopian people aged 2549, the average get older at first relationship was 23.7 and also the median age at first sex is actually 21.2, 2.5 many years before relationships [4]. Additionally, regarding the 13.8percent of never-married men free musician dating apps bring who had intercourse prior to now 12 months with someone who is neither their own girlfriend nor someone who existed together, just a little more than half (53.9per cent) reported making use of a condom during final gender with such a partner [4].

A number of research reports have evaluated individual-level issues associated with condom utilize among teenage boys in Ethiopia. Aspects which have demonstrated to support the using condoms incorporate household help and relationship, powerful relationships with teachers and various other youngsters, conversations about sexuality with family and associates, greater identified economic status, and better levels of training [5,6,7]. Risk facets connected with non-use of condoms or any other dangerous intimate habits consist of reasonable participation in religious activities, highest amounts of alcohol consumption, and poor familiarity with HIV/AIDS [5, 8]. Thus, there is certainly a need to focus on growing use of condoms among men, your protection of HIV, STIs, and unintended maternity. There is a need for interventions to focus on the contextual issues close pre-marital sex by approaching assault during the early intimate encounters, and gender assets.

Research from the character of social norms in youthful mens making decisions to make use of condoms try mixed. A report of youngsters in outlying Ethiopia unearthed that social norms inspired goal to utilize condoms not reported usage of condoms [9]. In four reports in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Swaziland, where norms are calculated by various comments, personal norms comprise shown to shape female and male adolescents use of condoms [10,11,12,13]. But research of teenagers in outlying Tanzania that analyzed the part of social norms through statements like the appropriate: we buy into the thoughts of my pals that I should make use of condoms when sex unearthed that norms failed to straight anticipate condom utilize [14]. These email address details are inconclusive and do not record the entire selection personal norms that may influence actions.

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